Science is evil...obviously
Last night I engaged in my favourite hobby - stealing things from blind nuns and laughing at their suffering. After all, I'm a scientist and we're morally bankrupt. We invented the atom bomb, chemical warfare and (as some conspiracists would have you believe) the Ebola and Zika viruses. Scientists are the heartless people in lab coats, electrocuting defenceless chimpanzees and cackling as they do so. In fact, when you pledge allegiance to the Head of Science, you have to kill a bunny and bathe in its blood. That's why I became a Scientist - I love human suffering.
I'm exagerrating for comic effect of course (not much though) but there really are people who see Science in this light. Some people seem to carry the notion in their heads that because Scientists want to understand how everything works, that means we are detached from the moral trappings of decency.
I was once asked whether Science had any moral compass or whether investigating the universe had to be done in a cold, moral vacuum. I originally gave a cursory answer in my "Q&A" section, but it's a brilliant philosophical question which deserves more thought. While there have been evil Scientists like Josef Mengele, Harold Hodge and Harry Harlow, is it true that all Scientists are destined to become purveyors of cruelty and sadism? Does Science make people evil?
Right and Wrong
Everybody carries ideas in their heads about right and wrong actions. To some people it's wrong to eat animals, to others it's fine. Some people think it's wrong to dance with members of the opposite sex, while others think it's wrong to even suggest there are such things as "sexes". Some cultures on Earth readily engage in cannibalism while others see it as one of the ultimate taboos. So how do you agree on morality when everybody disagrees?
Suppose a child slaps another child. An adult might disagree with their action and, ironically, slap the aggressive child themselves (I've seen it happen). Should we assume the adult's moral code is correct because they have experienced more of life? If we decided that adults know what they're doing and children don't, you'd have to explain how Malala Yousafzai won a Nobel Peace Prize for undermining the Taliban at the age of 11.
Even things we assume are obviously wrong are far from universal. Telling lies is often considered immoral yet millions of parents tell their children about Santa Claus and the Tooth Fairy. Or (to paraphrase Immanuel Kant) suppose a mad axe-murderer came to your door looking for someone you knew was hiding there. If it's morally wrong to lie, shouldn't you say "Yup, they're hiding in the closet, right this way!" It's the axe murderer who then finds the victim and kills them, not you. You are morally clean in that scenario because you didn't lie.
Or perhaps we could argue the mad axe murderer is not accountable for their actions because they are mad...perhaps they did nothing wrong other than obeying natural drives? And what do we make of all the murders which take place during a war? If a soldier shoots a terrorist that's still commiting a murder, any way you look at it.
Human morality is inevtiably subjective i.e. it depends on a person's opinion. You might think it's wrong to slap a granny but that's just it...it's what you personally think. If someone else says it's fine to go out granny-slapping, then it's a difference of opinion not fact. But can it be resolved with Science? After all, Science has a long history of settling debates by discovering "objective" truths i.e. facts independent of beliefs or values. Could Science discover such a thing as an objective morality?
The notion of objective morality would be a moral code which could not be disagreed with. Such principles would be an inherent part of the Universe, like gravity pulling objects together or heat moving from high temperature to low. Could we use Science to discover moral principles which are fundamental to reality, which transcend human opinion and desire?
I'll be honest, I think the answer is no, and the reason is simple: Science is concerned with what is not what ought to be.
Let's take murder as an example. Imagine I wanted to shoot someone in the face. Science can tell me that pulling the trigger will kill the person involved. I would still want to murder them and could ask the question "why should I not kill them?" Science can then demonstrate that the man would no longer be able to enjoy life. I could respond with "why should he be able to enjoy life?" Science could point out that his death will cause suffering to friends and family. But again, I could ask the question "why should I not cause suffering to others?"
Science could show that I would not like it if someone made me suffer and I could agree, but still respond "Why should I treat other people the way I want them to treat me?" The answer could be "Because it would be unfair to do otherwise?" and I would respond with "Why should the world be fair?"
Science could even argue that a violent species is at risk of wiping itself out and that by commiting violent acts constantly we could destroy the human race. But still, the murderer could respond with "Why shouldn't we destroy the human race? The Universe will carry on the same," and we could go on like that forever, never resolving anything.
No matter what we said to a murderer, we could not argue that the Universe requires them to not kill. The Universe doesn't permit objects to travel faster than light through spacetime but it does allow murder to take place. Clearly there is no fundamental law stopping it from happening, so a murderer has nothing preventing them from doing so other than the belief it would be better if they didn't.
If a person liked the idea of everybody being miserable, everybody suffering, and the human race going extinct, how could I show them they were incorrect for wanting that? How can a desire be incorrect?
Science can definitely show us that things like murder, theft, cruelty etc. make other people suffer and we can even show that their suffering is identical to ours. But "the decision to not cause suffering" cannot be shown to be something nature prefers. The Universe doesn't want or demand anything since it is not conscious and consciousness is required for morality.
Where would it come from?
If there is such a thing as objective morality, it must come from a supernatural source e.g. a God (a conscious entity not subject to natural laws). This doesn't mean atheists are horrible people however. I've seen many religious apologists say something like "so atheists don't believe in objective morality?" to which the atheist has to logically say "yes that's correct"...at which point the apologist springs their apparent trap: "Aha, so you think there is nothing objectively wrong with murdering people!" This tactic is a little underhanded, and I feel it gives apologetics a bad name.
Atheists can still think murder is evil and will still condemn those who do it, it's just that they think this belief comes from their personal desire to end suffering, not from a God. Atheists do not believe murder is objectively wrong but they also don't believe it is objectively purple. They just think words like right and wrong don't apply in the context of desires and values.
Atheists would also ask the question: if morality comes from God, who holds God accountable? In the Christian Bible for example the God of the Israelites threatens to make people cannibalise their own children (Leviticus 26:29 and Jeremiah 19:9) sends bears to maul 42 teenagers (2 Kings 2: 24) and seems to encourage the murder of babies and enslavement of virgin women (Numbers 31).
What do we make of something like that? What if we aren't comfortable with the idea of killing children and enslaving women? Are humans allowed to disagree with such a moral command if it has come from God?
This, incidentally, is why many atheists reject the notion of morality from God, since God is sometimes willing to enforce suffering and death. Many religious people find these questions difficult to answer, although for a fascinating defence of God's morality in the Old Testament, I reccommend the book Is God a Moral Monster by Paul Copan.
Putting it to the Test
The reason we would struggle to use Science as a measure of morality is also down to how Science works. In Science, if you want to know the truth about something, you ask questions and carry out experiments. That's the only way to do it.
But the moral question is as follows: should we do evil? There is no experiment which can answer such a query because the answer is always going to depend on a human answer. Electrons don't lose charge when you tell lies and black holes don't appear when you say mean things. There is no "moralon" particle which influences other particles to prevent suffering. Asking whether you should or shouldn't do something isn't a falsifiable question and Science only deals in falsifiable questions.
To be abundantly clear, I don't like the idea of the human race being wiped out or people suffering needlessly but that's just it. It is something I don't like. It's a feeling based on my personal tastes.
If you wanted to prove morality does exist external to human opinion, you would have to find an example of a moral act being somehow wrong...without there being a human mind involved. And I am not sure such an experiment even makes logical sense. The Universe seems to behave in a way which has no desire to appease or offend human sensibilities. Gravity works because it works, not because humans feel it ought to.
So...Scientists are Immoral after all then?
It would appear that using Science we cannot uncover an objective morality, which means any belief you have about right and wrong is either your opinion or coming from a supernatural source which Science cannot discover. Does this mean Scientists are immoral? Well, the answer is no. Scientists are not immoral, but they are "amoral", which means something different.
Immoral means knowing the difference between right and wrong, but doing the wrong thing anyway. Amoral means not being aware/not accepting there are such things as right and wrong. Satan would be considered immoral because he knows what right and wrong are, and chooses wrong. But a fox killing a rabbit is amoral because it isn't aware of morality. And in this sense, the Scientific worldview is an amoral one simply because there is no evidence morals actually exist, but that doesn't mean Scientists are evil people. Absolutely not.
Science cannot prove the existence of morals but it also cannot prove that Batman is better than Iron Man. It's a matter of opinion. Scientists are still able to have tastes and opinions about the world, they just can't prove their tastes and opinions are objective...which puts them in the same league as everyone else. Nobody can prove their tastes and opinions are objective, that's sort of what makes them tastes and opinions (unless you're Batman, in which case everything you do is morally right). So the answer is no, Science cannot help with morality, but I would like to make the case that it can help with something equally important: ethics.
Morals and Ethics
Although the words are used synonymously, ethics are not the same as morals. Morals are a person's individual decisions about what they consider to be good and bad acts. Ethics are laws a society collectively agrees on to make the world better for people. For example, morality might tell you not to cremate a corpse (there are many people who believe cremation is bad). That's fine because it's your opinion and you're entitled to it. Ethics takes a different approach. Ethics starts from the idea that we should try and make the world pleasant and minimise suffering wherever possible.
Cremation doesn't cause suffering to the deceased (they're dead), and it might actually solve the problem of overcrowding in cemeteries. Ethics looks at what the facts are and then makes a decision based on the notion that suffering is to be avoided. If the deceased's family would be greatly upset at their loved one being cremated, ethics could still decide cremation was wrong, but if the family had no objection and the family actually wanted them to be cremated, ethics says go for it.
Ethics are still based on the human opinion that we should do well as a species and end suffering, but it never claims to be objectively correct. It's interested in learning the facts and then making a decision as a result. And this is where Science does operate.
Some of the most controverial ethical/moral issues we face today are things like abortion, euthanasia, animal-testing, vegetarianism, capital punishment and what to do with psychopaths. Morally, everyone might have personal opinions about each of these issues but that won't get the debate settled.
In order to answer these tricky questions we have to rely on ethics, which means Science is relevant. Not in telling us what decisions to make of course, but in giving us the tools to make sure our decisions are well informed.
If we decide that causing others to suffer unnecessarily is something we want to avoid, then we can use Science to find out what causes suffering and how much is avoidable...but that initial decision still has to come from us. And I think this is where we have reason to be hopeful, because one thing Science has definitely shown is that humans have the capacity for empathy, sympathy, altruism and compassion. Just because the Universe is indifferent, doesn't mean we have to be :)
Right, I'm off to kick some orphans.
I love science, let me tell you why.